|Gagaku shakuhachi||Tempuku||Hitoyogiri||Miyogiri||Fuke shakuhachi||Modern shakuhachi|
|Dates||7th to 9th century in gagaku, then decline.||12th century-||Muromachi to Edo eras (1392-)||17th century to present.||17th century to present.||20th century to present.|
|History||Used in the gagaku ensemble, the ancient court music of Japan.||Popular in the Satsuma area of Kyushu (present day Kagoshima-ken).||Used by the komosō but mostly associated with secular music.||Associated with the komosō.||Used by the komusō, monks from the Fuke sect of Zen buddhism.||Used both for Zen practice and secular genres such as sankyoku, shinkyoku and gendaikyoku.|
|Bamboo type||Made in variety of materials from bamboo (hachiku) to jade, stone and ivory.||Hotei chiku||Madake||Madake||Madake||Madake|
|Position of utaguchi||Upper part of bamboo.||Upper part of bamboo.||Lower part of bamboo (towards the root).||Upper part of bamboo.||Upper part of bamboo.||Upper part of bamboo.|
|Utaguchi design||Arc-shaped notch, similar to modern shakuhachi.||Utaguchi shaped from inside.||Arc-shaped notch, similar to modern shakuhachi.||Arc-shaped notch, similar to modern shakuhachi.||Arc-shaped notch, similar to modern shakuhachi.||Many contain inserts of buffolo horn or ivory.|
|Number of nodes||3||3||1||3+||Variety of node number.||Standard is 7|
|Number of holes||5-1||4-1||4-1||4-1||4-1||4-1 (also 7 and 9)|
|Other factors||Fingerholes are slightly oval.||Small holes and thick bamboo.||Root end of the bamboo began to be used for bottom of shakuhachi.||Filler becomes popular to inhance tuning and response.|
Kô, Tanimura 1996 Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments: The Shakuhachi. Tôkyô: Ongaku no Tomo Sha Edition.
Lee, Riley 1992 The Transmission of the Shakuhachi Honkyoku. Published thesis.
Sanford, James H. 1977 “Shakuhachi Zen: the Fukeshû and Komusô.” Monumenta Nipponica 32/4.
Tono, Haruyuki 1992 Kentoshi no Shôsôin. Tôkyô: Iwanami Shoten.
Many thanks to Vlastislav Matousek, Czech shakuhachi player and composer for the photos of the hitoyogiri and tempuku.